Butler county is in the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky. The elevation in the county ranges from 385 to 810 feet above sea level.
In 2010 the county population was 12,690 in a land area of 426.09 square miles, an average of 29.8 people per square mile.
The equine population was 500 in the 2012 Kentucky Equine Survey.
Butler county was named to honor General Richard Butler, who served in the American Revolution and was later killed at the Battle of the Wabash in Ohio.