Fairfield is a northern Nelson county town near the border with Spencer county. Settlement in the area began about 1795 as a number of families moved into the area from Maryland. Fairfield, often referred to in its early years as Turkey Town for the abundant birds, was incorporated in 1819. The population in 2010 was 113.
Beginning in 1854 Henry McKenna operated a mill and distillery in Fairfield which became the town's major employer.