Perry county is in the Eastern Coal Field region of Kentucky. The elevation in the county ranges from 700 to 2520 feet above sea level.
It was formed in 1821 from Clay and Floyd counties. The county seat is Hazard. Perry county was a source of Breathitt (1839), Letcher (1842), Leslie (1878), and Knott (1884) counties.
In 2020 the county population was 28,473 in a land area of 339.67 square miles, an average of 83.8 people per square mile.
The equine population was 400 in the 2012 Kentucky Equine Survey.
Perry county is in the Kentucky River Area Development District. It is in the Appalachian region according to the Appalachian Regional Commission.
Perry county was named for Oliver Hazard Perry, a naval commander known in particular for the War of 1812.
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