Rockcastle county is in the Pennyrile and Eastern Coal Field regions of Kentucky. The elevation in the county ranges from 810 to 1638 feet above sea level.
It was formed in 1810 from Knox, Madison, Lincoln, and Pulaski counties. Rockcastle county was a source of Laurel (1826) and Jackson (1858) counties. The county seat is Mount Vernon.
In 2020 the county population was 16,037 in a land area of 316.55 square miles, an average of 50.7 people per square mile.
The equine population was 800 in the 2012 Kentucky Equine Survey.
Rockcastle county is in the Cumberland Valley Area Development District. It is in the Appalachian region according to the Appalachian Regional Commission.
Rockcastle county was named for the Rockcastle River, which forms its southeastern boundary. The river was named for its tall rock formations.
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